Adenosine is a natural substance manufacturers may use in cosmetic and skin care products. Evidence suggests that adenosine can soothe skin and support wound healing and the natural functioning of the skin. Proponents also indicate it may possess anti-aging properties.
Adenosine is a molecule present in all living organisms and an essential component of nucleic acids, which store and express genomic information. It plays an important role in many biochemical processes, and a doctor may use pharmaceutical grade adenosine to help restore the heart’s normal rhythm.
Adenosine is a relatively new ingredient in skin care formulations, with some evidence suggesting that it can help the skin look younger, brighter, and smoother.
In this article, we discuss adenosine in detail, including its potential benefits for the skin’s overall health.
Adenosine is a nucleoside, a structural subunit of nucleic acids. It consists of a ribose sugar molecule and a molecule of adenine, which is one of the four nucleotides that are building blocks of DNA.
It is also an integral component of adenosine triphosphate, the energy-carrying molecule that drives cell processes, such as sending of nerve impulses and muscle contraction.
While adenosine is abundant in nature and inside the body, manufacturers often extract it from yeast and include it in skin care and personal care products. It is a white, crystalline powder in its raw form and is only present in small concentrations in skin care products.
In recent years, adenosine has become a common ingredient in many cosmetic products, particularly those that people may use on the face and neck to improve the appearance of the skin.
The skin features many adenosine receptors, meaning that when a person applies topical products containing adenosine to their skin, it can have positive effects.
Anti-aging and smoothening
Some people may call products containing adenosine cosmeceuticals. This term refers to cosmetic ingredients that may possess medicine-like properties.
Similarly, a 2020 study notes that adenosine is effective at treating wrinkles and can stimulate fibroblasts in the skin. Fibroblasts are a type of cell that secretes collagen proteins and plays a role in wound healing, which helps reduce the appearance of wrinkles.
Soothing and healing
Adenosine possesses anti-inflammatory properties and modulates the body’s inflammatory responses. It does this by inhibiting the activity of immune cells, such as neutrophils and macrophages, and prevents them from causing inflammation-induced tissue damage.
A 2019 study on adenosine in wound healing found that it increased cell proliferation, or reproduction, at the wound site and accelerated endothelial cell wound healing. Endothelial cells line blood vessels, such as arteries and capillaries.
As the skin ages, it produces less and less collagen. Moreover, free radicals, UV exposure, and aging can degrade collagen proteins in the skin.
Adenosine’s ability to stimulate collagen formation can help strengthen the skin, restore its elasticity, and improve hydration.
Adenosine has a good safety profile and is generally suitable for all skin types, including sensitive skin.
The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel, which is a regulating body that inspects the safety of skin care ingredients, states that adenosine is safe for use in concentrations of up to 1% in body and hand leave-on products. Consequently, a person can expect to find adenosine at the bottom of their product’s ingredient list.
This also limits the potential risk of irritation and other physiological and pharmacological side effects.
The Environmental Working Group has given adenosine a rating of 1, indicating that it is safe. Experts do not suspect that it persists or accumulates in the body or that it is harmful to the environment.
However, like any skin care product, it can potentially cause allergies in certain people. It is advisable to do a patch test for an adenosine-containing product on a small skin area before applying it to the rest of the face.
How a person uses a skin care product containing adenosine will depend on the product type.
An individual can refer to the instructions on the product’s label for guidance on how best to use it. This should include guidelines on the frequency and amount of application.
As most organizations regulating cosmetic products suggest that adenosine is safe, a person should be able to use these products on most areas of their skin daily.
Adenosine may be present in many different topical products. Examples include:
- face masks
- eye creams
- anti-aging products
- lip balms
Adenosine is a relatively new skin care ingredient. People who are looking for ingredients with more research supporting their anti-aging and anti-wrinkle properties may wish to consider products that feature:
Other ingredients that may possess anti-wrinkle properties are:
If a person wants calming and soothing ingredients for their skin, they may wish to consider the following:
Adenosine is a skin care ingredient that may have anti-aging, soothing, repairing, and restoring properties.
Manufacturers add it to many skin care products, especially eye serums and anti-aging creams. It is present in minimal concentrations, making it likely to be at the bottom of the list of ingredients.
Research indicates that adenosine is safe for all skin types and nonirritating and has no known adverse effects.
A person looking for a mild skin care product to address wrinkles and fine lines may want to consider products containing adenosine.